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Bone marrow aspiration
Bone marrow aspiration


Sternum - view of the outside (anterior)
Sternum - view of the outside (anterior)


Definition:

Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. It is found in the hollow part of most bones. Bone marrow aspiration is the removal of a small amount of this tissue in liquid form for examination.

See also:



Alternative Names:

Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap



How the test is performed:

The bone marrow will be removed from your pelvic or breast bone. Occasionally, another bone is selected.

The health care provider will clean the skin and apply a numbing medicine (local anesthesia) to the area and surface of the bone. Next, a special needle is inserted into the bone. The needle has a tube attached to it, which creates suction. A small sample of bone marrow fluid flows into the tube. The needle is removed.

A laboratory specialist looks at the bone marrow fluid under a microscope.



How to prepare for the test:

No special preparation is necessary for this test.



How the test will feel:

You may feel a sting and slight burning sensation when the numbing medicine is applied. You may feel pressure as the needle is inserted into the bone, and a sharp sucking sensation as the marrow is removed. This feeling lasts for only a few moments.



Why the test is performed:

This test is used to diagnose leukemia, infections, some types of anemia , and other blood disorders. It may help determine if cancers have spread.



Normal Values:

The marrow should contain blood-forming (hematopoietic) cells, fat cells, and connective tissues.



What the risks are:

There may be some bleeding at the puncture site. More serious risks, such as serious bleeding or infection, are very rare.



Special considerations:



References:

Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Shattil SS, et al. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 4th ed. Orlando, Fl: Churchill Livingstone; 2005:2656-2657.

Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap.446.




Review Date: 7/11/2008
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; and James R. Mason, MD, Oncologist, Director, Blood and Marrow Transplantation Program and Stem Cell Processing Lab, Scripps Clinic, Torrey Pines, California. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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