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Kidney - blood and urine flow
Kidney - blood and urine flow


Definition:

Renin is a protein (enzyme) released into the bloodstream by special kidney cells. It is released in response to decreasing salt (sodium) levels or low blood volume. Renin plays a role in the release of aldosterone, a hormone that helps control the body's salt and water balance.

A test can be done to measure the amount of renin in your blood.



Alternative Names:

Plasma renin activity; Random plasma renin; PRA



How the test is performed:

Blood is drawn from a vein, usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The site is cleaned with germ-killing medicine (antiseptic). The health care provider wraps an elastic band around the upper arm to apply pressure to the area and make the vein swell with blood.

Next, the health care provider gently inserts a needle into the vein. The blood collects into an airtight vial or tube attached to the needle. The elastic band is removed from your arm.

Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed, and the puncture site is covered to stop any bleeding.

In infants or young children, a sharp tool called a lancet may be used to puncture the skin and make it bleed. The blood collects into a small glass tube called a pipette, or onto a slide or test strip. A bandage may be placed over the area if there is any bleeding.



How to prepare for the test:

Your health care provider may tell you to temporarily stop taking certain drugs that can affect test results.

Drugs that can affect renin measurements include:

  • Birth control pills
  • Blood pressure medications
  • Diuretics
  • Vasodilators

You should eat a normal, balanced diet with low-sodium content (about 3 gm/day) for 3 days before the test.



How the test will feel:

When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain, while others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.



Why the test is performed:

This test is performed as part of the diagnosis and treatment of high blood pressure.

Persons with essential hypertension may have renin and aldosterone levels checked to evaluate if they are salt-sensitive, which causes low renin with normal aldosterone levels. The test results help to guide your doctor in choosing the correct medication. Salt-sensitive patients with high blood pressure associated with low renin levels respond well to diuretic medications.



Normal Values:

Normal values range from 1.9 to 3.7 ng/mL/hour.

Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.



What abnormal results mean:

Higher than normal levels may indicate:

Lower than normal levels may indicate:

  • ADH therapy
  • Salt-retaining steroid therapy
  • Salt-sensitive essential hypertension


What the risks are:

Veins and arteries vary in size from one patient to another and from one side of the body to the other. Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than from others.

Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight but may include:

  • Excessive bleeding
  • Fainting or feeling light-headed
  • Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
  • Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)


Special considerations:

Renin measurements are affected by salt intake, pregnancy, time of day, and body position.




Review Date: 10/22/2007
Reviewed By: Robert Mushnick, M.D., Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Nephrology, SUNY Downstate Health Center, Brooklyn, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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