Ticks are small, insect-like creatures that can attach to you as you brush past bushes, plants, and grass. Once on you, ticks often move to a warm, moist location, like the armpits, groin, and hair. At that point they typically attach firmly to your skin and begin to draw blood.
Ticks can be fairly large -- about the size of a pencil eraser -- or so small that they are almost impossible to see. Ticks can cause a variety of health conditions ranging from harmless to serious.
This article describes the effects of a tick bite.
This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.
See also: Tick removal
Hard- and soft-bodied female ticks are believed to make a poison that can cause tick paralysis in children.
While most ticks do not carry diseases, some ticks can carry bacteria that can cause:
Ticks live in wooded or grassy fields.
Watch for the symptoms of tick-borne diseases in the weeks following a tick bite -- muscle or joint aches, stiff neck, headache, weakness, fever, swollen lymph nodes, and other flu-like symptoms. Watch for a red spot or rash starting at the location of the bite.
The symptoms below refer more to the problems resulting from the bite itself, not the diseases that a bite may cause. Some of the symptoms are specific to one variety of tick or another but not necessarily common to all ticks.
- Apnea (breathing stopped)
- Difficulty breathing
- Loss of movement (paralysis)
- Severe pain at bite site (some varieties), lasting for several weeks
- Swelling at bite site (some varieties)
- Uncoordinated movement
Remove the tick (see tick removal ). Be careful not to leave the tick's head stuck in the skin.
Before Calling Emergency:
Determine the following information:
- Patient's age, weight, and condition
- Type of insect
- Time the bite occurred
- Part of the body affected
Poison Control, or a local emergency number:
The National Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions.
This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
See: Poison control center - emergency number
What to expect at the emergency room:
The symptoms will be treated.
Most tick bites are harmless. The outcome will depend on what type of infection the tick may have been carrying and how soon appropriate treatment was begun.
Holm AL. Arachnids, insects, and other arthropods. In: Long SS, Pickering LK, Prober CG, eds. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Churchill Livingstone; 2003:chap 299.
|Review Date: 2/17/2009|
Reviewed By: A.D.A.M. Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Greg Juhn, MTPW, David R. Eltz. Previously reviewed by Stephen C Acosta, MD, Department of Emergency Medicine, Portland VA Medical Center, Portland, OR. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network (10/24/2007).
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