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Throat anatomy
Throat anatomy


Adenoids
Adenoids


Definition:

Enlarged adenoids refers to swollen lymphatic tissue in the back of the nose. The tissue is similar to the tonsils.



Alternative Names:

Adenoids - enlarged



Causes, incidence, and risk factors:

Enlargement of the adenoids may occur naturally (beginning when the baby grows in the womb), or it may be caused by long-term inflammation.



Symptoms:
  • Bad breath
  • Cracked lips
  • Dry mouth
  • Frequent ear infections
  • Intermittent sleep apnea
  • Mouth breathing (mostly at night)
  • Mouth open during day (more severe obstruction)
  • Persistent runny nose or nasal congestion
  • Restlessness while sleeping
  • Snoring


Signs and tests:

The adenoids cannot be seen by looking in the mouth directly, but can be seen with a special mirror or using a flexible endoscope through the nose.

Tests may include:

  • X-ray (side view of the throat)
  • Sleep apnea studies (severe cases only)


Treatment:

Surgical removal of the adenoids (adenoidectomy ) will prevent complications, and will cure complications if they already exist from enlarged adenoids. Antibiotics may be used to treat tonsil, adenoid, and sinus infections when they occur.



Support Groups:



Expectations (prognosis):

Full recovery is expected.



Complications:

Enlarged adenoids can cause health-threatening conditions such as chronic ear infections, sleep apnea , pulmonary hypertension , and right-sided heart failure.



Calling your health care provider:

Call your health care provider if your child has difficulty breathing through the nose or other symptoms of enlarged adenoids.



Prevention:

Treating throat infections early may prevent the adenoids from becoming enlarged from long-term infection and inflammation. Removing the adenoids prevents long-term airway blockage.




Review Date: 12/1/2008
Reviewed By: Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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