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Forms of depression
Forms of depression


Definition:

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a form of depression that occurs in relation to the seasons, most commonly beginning in winter.



Causes, incidence, and risk factors:

The disorder may begin in adolescence or early adulthood. Like other forms of depression, it occurs more frequently in women than in men. Most people with the "winter blahs" or "cabin fever" do not have SAD.

The cause of SAD is not known, but it is thought to be related to numerous factors, including:

  • Ambient light
  • Body temperature
  • Hormone regulation

A rare form occurs in the summer.



Symptoms:

Signs and tests:

A visit to your health care provider will look for other causes of the symptoms and confirm the diagnosis. A psychological evaluation may be needed for more severe depression.

See also: Depression



Treatment:

As with other types of depression, antidepressant medications and talk therapy can be effective. Light therapy using a special lamp to mimic light from the sun may also be helpful.

Symptoms commonly get better on their own with the change of seasons.



Support Groups:



Expectations (prognosis):

The outcome is good with continuous treatment, although some people have the disorder throughout their lives.



Complications:

Seasonal affective disorder can sometimes progress to a major depressive syndrome.



Calling your health care provider:

Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you experience symptoms of seasonal affective disorder.



Prevention:

Individuals who have had recurrent seasonal depression should speak with a mental health care professional to explore treatments.



References:

Lurie Sj, Gawinski B, Pierce D, Rousseau SJ. Seasonal affective disorder. American Family Physician. 2006;74:1521-1524.

Agerter DC, Rasmussen NH, Sutor B. Depression. In: Rakel RE, ed. Textbook of Family Medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 58.




Review Date: 1/15/2009
Reviewed By: Christos Ballas, MD, Attending Psychiatrist, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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