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Inguinal hernia
Inguinal hernia


Femoral hernia
Femoral hernia


Definition:

A femoral hernia is the sticking out of a part of the intestine through a weakening in the abdominal wall near the thigh.



Alternative Names:

Femorocele; Enteromerocele; Crural hernia



Causes, incidence, and risk factors:

A hernia occurs when abdominal contents, usually part of the small intestine, push through a weak point or tear in the thin muscular wall of the abdomen that holds the abdominal organs in place.

In a femoral hernia, a bulge is usually present in the upper part of the thigh, just below the groin, where the femoral artery and vein pass. Femoral hernias tend to occur more often in women than in men.



Symptoms:

Signs and tests:

A physical examination reveals the hernia. Tests are usually not necessary.



Treatment:

Hernias generally get larger with time, and they usually do not go away on their own. If the patient's health allows, surgery is done to relieve discomfort and to prevent complications such as incarceration and strangulation. Often, a piece of plastic mesh is surgically placed to repair the defect in the abdominal wall.

Urgent surgery is required a hernia that may be trapped or strangulated.



Support Groups:



Expectations (prognosis):

The outcome is usually quite good if the hernia is treated properly. The rate of hernia recurrence after surgical repair is generally less than 3%. See: Hernia repair



Complications:

A femoral hernia may become stuck (incarcerated) and strangulated (the loop of bowel loses its blood supply). Nausea, vomiting, and severe abdominal pain may occur with a strangulated hernia. This is a medical emergency. A strangulated intestine can result in tissue death (gangrene), a life-threatening condition requiring immediate surgery.



Calling your health care provider:

Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if a hernia cannot be pushed back into the abdomen by gentle pressure, or if nausea or vomiting develop.



Prevention:

Overweight patients may be able to prevent hernias from forming by losing weight.

Chronic cough, constipation , and prostatic hypertrophy may lead to straining with urination or defecation, which can lead to the formation of hernias. These conditions should be discussed with your doctor prior to hernia repair.



References:

Prather C. Inflammatory and anatomic diseases of the intestine, peritoneum, mesentery, and omentum. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 145.




Review Date: 10/24/2008
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; and George F. Longstreth, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, San Diego, California. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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