Causes, incidence, and risk factors:
The condition is associated with aging and gets worse over time. The focusing power of the eye depends on the elasticity of the lens. This elasticity is gradually lost as people age. The result is a slow decrease in the ability of the eye to focus on nearby objects.
People usually notice the condition around age 45, when they realize that they need to hold reading materials further away in order to focus on them. Presbyopia is a natural part of the aging process and affects everyone.
Presbyopia can be corrected with glasses or contact lenses. In some cases, the addition of bifocals to an existing lens prescription is enough. As the ability to focus up close worsens, the prescription needs to be changed.
Around the age of 65, the eyes have usually lost most of the elasticity needed to focus up close. However, it will still be possible to read with the help of the right prescription. Even so, you may find it necessary to hold reading materials further away, and you may need larger print and more light by which to read.
People who do not need glasses for distance vision may only need half glasses or reading glasses.
With the use of contact lenses, some people choose to correct one eye for near and one eye for far vision. This is called "monovision" and eliminates the need for bifocals or reading glasses, but it can affect depth perception. There are also newer contact lenses that can correct for both near and far vision with the same lens.
New surgical procedures can also provide solutions for those who do not want to wear glasses or contacts.