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Bladder catheterization, female
Bladder catheterization, female


Bladder catheterization, male
Bladder catheterization, male


Female urinary tract
Female urinary tract


Male urinary tract
Male urinary tract


Definition:

Obstructive uropathy is a condition in which the flow of urine is blocked, causing it to back up and injure one or both kidneys.



Alternative Names:

Uropathy - obstructive



Causes, incidence, and risk factors:

Obstructive uropathy occurs when urine cannot drain through a ureter (a tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder). Urine backs up into the kidney and causes it to become swollen (hydronephrosis ).

Obstructive uropathy is grouped according to whether it affects one or both kidneys and whether it occurs suddenly or is long-term:

Common causes of obstructive uropathy include the following:



Symptoms:

Symptoms associated with obstructive uropathy vary depending on whether the obstruction is acute or chronic, whether it is unilateral or bilateral, whether it is complete or partial, and what caused it. Common symptoms of obstructive uropathy include the following:



Signs and tests:

The diagnosis of obstructive uropathy is made on imaging studies. Common radiographic studies used to diagnose obstructive uropathy include:



Treatment:

Stents or drains placed in the ureter or in the renal pelvis may provide short-term relief of symptoms. Nephrostomy tubes, which drain urine from the kidneys through the back, may be used to bypass the obstruction. A Foley catheter, inserted through the urethra, may also be helpful.

Although temporary relief from the obstruction can be achieved without surgery, the cause of the obstruction must be removed and the urinary system repaired. Long-term relief from obstructive uropathy requires surgery.



Support Groups:



Expectations (prognosis):

If an acute obstruction is rapidly diagnosed and repaired, kidney damage is minimal or reversible -- regardless of being unilateral or bilateral.

If chronic unilateral obstruction is not relieved promptly there could be permanent damage to the kidney. Chronic unilateral obstruction usually does not cause kidney insufficiency or failure because most patients have normal function from the other kidney.

Chronic bilateral obstruction may lead to kidney insufficiency or failure because both kidneys may become damaged and fail to function even after the obstruction is repaired.

For more specific information, see the individual articles below:



Complications:

Obstructive uropathy can cause permanent and severe damage to the kidneys, resulting in renal failure. Obstructive uropathy caused by bladder outlet obstruction can lead to permanent and severe damage to the bladder, resulting in problems such as incontinence and urinary retention.



Calling your health care provider:

Contact your health care provider if you have symptoms of obstructive uropathy or believe that you may be suffering from this condition.



Prevention:

Obstructive uropathy can be prevented by addressing any underlying disorders that can cause it.



References:

Wein AJ, et al. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 9th ed. St. Louis, Mo: WB Saunders; 2007.

Goldman L, Ausiello D, et al. Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 22nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders; 2004:741-742.




Review Date: 1/24/2008
Reviewed By: Marc A. Greenstein, D.O., F.A.C.O.S. Urologist, Somerset Medical Center in Somerville, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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