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Female urinary tract
Female urinary tract


Male urinary tract
Male urinary tract


Ureterocele
Ureterocele


Definition:

A ureterocele is swelling in one of the tubes (ureters) that carry urine from the kidney to the bladder. The swelling can block urine flow.

A ureterocele is a birth defect.



Causes, incidence, and risk factors:

A ureterocele occurs in the lower part of the ureter, where the tube enters the bladder. The swelling prevents urine from moving freely into the bladder. The urine collects in the ureter and stretches its walls, blowing it up like a water balloon.

Ureteroceles occur in about 1 in 500 to 1 in 4,000 people. Caucasians are most likely to be affected. Ureteroceles are equally common in left- and right-side ureters.



Symptoms:

Signs and tests:

Large ureteroceles are usually diagnosed earlier than smaller ones. A ureterocele may be discovered before the baby is born (during a pregnancy ultrasound ).

Some people with ureteroceles do not know they have the condition. Often, the diagnosis is made later in life due to kidney stones .

A urinalysis may reveal blood in the urine or signs of urinary tract infection.

The following tests may be performed:

Blood pressure may be high if there is kidney damage.



Treatment:

Antibiotics such as ampicillin or Bactrim are usually given to prevent further infections until surgery can be done.

The goal of treatment is to get rid of the blockage. Drains placed in the ureter or renal area (stents ) may provide short-term relief of symptoms.

Surgery to repair the ureterocele usually cures the condition. Surgery involves making a cut into the ureterocele ("popping the water balloon") or removing the ureterocele and reattaching the ureter to the bladder. Which surgery is performed depends on the severity of the blockage.



Support Groups:



Expectations (prognosis):

The outcome varies. If the obstruction can be cured, the damage may be temporary. However, damage to the kidney may be permanent, especially if the condition doesn't go away.

Kidney failure is uncommon because the other kidney usually continues to work as normal.



Complications:
  • Permanent bladder damage (incontinence/urinary retention)
  • Permanent kidney damage , with a decrease or loss of function (one kidney)
  • Urinary tract infection that keeps coming back


Calling your health care provider:

Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of ureterocele.



Prevention:



References:

Schlussel RN, Retik AB. Ectopic Ureter, Ureterocele, and Other Anomalies of the Ureter. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2007: chap 116.

Guay-Woodford LM. Hereditary Nephropathies and Abnormalities of the Urinary Tract. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: chap 129.




Review Date: 9/7/2008
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; and Louis S. Liou, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor of Urology, Department of Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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