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Bronchoscopy
Bronchoscopy


Lung cancer, lateral chest X-ray
Lung cancer, lateral chest X-ray


Lung cancer, frontal chest X-ray
Lung cancer, frontal chest X-ray


Coal workers pneumoconiosis - stage II
Coal workers pneumoconiosis - stage II


Coal workers pneumoconiosis - stage II #2
Coal workers pneumoconiosis - stage II #2


Coal workers pneumoconiosis, complicated
Coal workers pneumoconiosis, complicated


Coal workers pneumoconiosis, complicated #2
Coal workers pneumoconiosis, complicated #2


Pulmonary nodule - front view chest X-ray
Pulmonary nodule - front view chest X-ray


Pulmonary nodule, solitary - CT scan
Pulmonary nodule, solitary - CT scan


Sarcoid, stage II - chest X-ray
Sarcoid, stage II - chest X-ray


Lung with squamous cell cancer - CT scan
Lung with squamous cell cancer - CT scan


Respiratory system
Respiratory system


Definition:

Metastatic cancer to the lung is cancer that starts somewhere else in the body and spreads to the lungs.

See also: Lung cancer



Alternative Names:

Lung metastases



Causes, incidence, and risk factors:

Metastatic tumors in the lungs are cancers that developed at other sites and spread through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to the lungs. Common tumors that spread to the lungs include:

However, almost any cancer has the ability to spread to the lungs.



Symptoms:

Note: In most cases, there are no lung-related symptoms when the tumors are found.



Treatment:

In most cases, metastatic cancer to the lung is a sign that the cancer has spread into the bloodstream. Usually cancer will be present even in places not seen by CT scans. In these circumstances, removing the visible tumors with surgery is usually not beneficial. Chemotherapy is usually the treatment of choice.

Sometimes when the primary tumor has been removed and the cancer has spread to only limited areas of the lung, the lung tumors can be removed with surgery. However, the main tumor must be curable, the lung tumors must be able to be completely cut out, and the patient must be strong enough to go through the surgery and recovery.

Other, less common treatments include:

There are other experimental treatments. One of these treatments uses local heat probes to destroy the area. Another drips chemotherapy directly into the artery that supplies blood to the part of the lung containing the tumor.



Support Groups:

You can ease the stress of illness by joining a support group where members share common experiences and problems. For this condition, see cancer support group .



Expectations (prognosis):

A cure is unlikely in most cases. It is rare for someone to live more than 5 years with metastatic cancer to the lungs.

Rarely, patients with certain types of cancer (sarcoma, renal cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, colon cancer, or melanoma) that has only spread a limited amount to the lung can be cured with surgery. Some types of cancer (particularly lymphoma or testicular cancer) that has spread to the lung can be cured with chemotherapy.



Complications:
  • Fluid around the heart (pericardial effusions), which can cause shortness of breath
  • Fluid between the lung and chest wall (pleural effusions), which can cause shortness of breath
  • Further spread of the cancer
  • Side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy


Calling your health care provider:

Call your health care provider if you have a history of cancer and you develop:

  • Coughing up blood (bloody sputum)
  • Persistent cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Unexplained weight loss


Prevention:

Not all cancers can be prevented. However, many can be prevented by:

  • Eating a healthy diet
  • Exercising regularly
  • Limiting alcohol consumption
  • Not smoking


References:

Rusch VW. Lung metastases. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Niederhuber JE, Kastan MB, McKenna WG. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2008:chap 58.




Review Date: 9/4/2008
Reviewed By: Sean O. Stitham, MD, private practice in Internal Medicine, Seattle, Washington; and James R. Mason, MD, Oncologist, Director, Blood and Marrow Transplantation Program and Stem Cell Processing Lab, Scripps Clinic, Torrey Pines, California. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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