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Disseminated coccidioidomycosis
Disseminated coccidioidomycosis


Fungus
Fungus


Definition:

Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection that spreads through the bloodstream and involves many organs.



Alternative Names:

Coccidioidomycosis - systemic



Causes, incidence, and risk factors:

Coccidioidomycosis is caused by breathing in spores of Coccidioides immitis, a fungus found in the soil in certain parts of the southwestern U.S., Mexico, and Central and South America.

Most acute infections cause no symptoms and are only recognized by a positive coccidioidin skin test . Other times, the symptoms range from mild to severe.

In the disseminated form of the disease, the infection may spread to the bones, lungs, liver, brain, skin, heart, and pericardium (sac around the heart). Meningitis occurs in 30 - 50% of cases of disseminated disease.

The following increases your risk of disseminated coccidioidomycosis:



Symptoms:

Additional symptoms that may be associated with this disease:

  • Joint swelling
  • Joint pain
  • Skin reaction (erythema nodosum)
  • Arthritis
  • Ankle, feet, and leg swelling


Signs and tests: Tests that may be done include:

A biopsy of tissue may be done to determine the area of disseminated disease:

A neurological examination may show abnormalities.



Treatment:

Bed rest and improved nutrition are recommended. Antifungal drugs are prescribed to treat the infection.



Support Groups:



Expectations (prognosis):

People with disseminated disease have a high death rate. Death may be rapid for immunosuppressed patients.



Calling your health care provider:

Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you have symptoms of disseminated coccidioidomycosis.



Prevention:

General maintenance of good health will limit the disease to a harmless lung illness. Prevention of AIDS or other causes of impaired immune system will generally prevent the more severe forms of the disease.



References:

Galgiani JN, Ampel NM, Catanzaro A, Johnson RH, Stevens DA, Williams PL. Practice guidelines for the treatment of coccidioidomycosis. Clin Infect Dis. April 2000;30:658-661.

Chiller TM. Coccidioidomycosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2003; 17(1): 41-57, viii.

Murray J, Nadel J. Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders; 2000.

Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 5th ed. London, UK: Churchill Livingstone; 2000:2746-2755.

Galgiani JN, Ampel N, Blair JE, et al. Coccidioidomycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:1217-23.




Review Date: 8/6/2007
Reviewed By: D. Scott Smith, MD., MSc., DTM., Prof. Medical Microbiology & Immunology, Dept. of Human Biology, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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